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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Ephemeral architecture in Central and Eastern Europe in the 19th and 21st centuries. Dragan Damjanovic. Gianenrico Bernasconi. Paolo Cornaglia. Cosmin Minea.

Veronika Drohobytska. Silvija Grosa. Caoimhe Gallagher. Marta Filipova. Lara Slivnik. Roula Matar-Perret. Cristiana Volpi. Editions Harmattan. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package This paper. A short summary of this paper.

READ PAPER. Exhibitions in the nineteenth century were oft en konyv: 10.32. to modernity and their architecture refl ected diverse nation building strategies Greenhalgh In 10.32. and Eastern Europe national movements fl ourished in imperial contexts: in the territories of the Habsburg Empire later Austria-HungaryPrussia later Germany and Russia. Central and Eastern Europe is a fl uid geopolitical concept of the twentieth century referring to a politically unstable territory, whose borders shift ed almost continuously during the timespan under investigation.

Temporary constructions were erected for national and international exhibitions as a means for conveying ideas to an immediate 10.32., while pavilions were regarded as hubs of architectural and artistic trends, political visions, and cultural and social issues. Th e complex political, cultural, social, economic and urban context of ephemerity is related, in this volume, to the nation-building strategies of the region. Our focus is on the interrelationships between constantly changing political ideologies and spectacular ephemeral architecture and displays.

Th e wide range of approaches in this book includes the exterior and interior design of an exhibition pavilion, along with its location within the exhibition park and among neighboring edifi konyv: 10.32., and its function as a 10.32. of regional, national or corporate representation. Th e main objective of konyv: volume is to investigate the relationship between nationbuilding strategies, political propaganda and temporary architecture in Central and Eastern Europe.

Th is region, notwithstanding the absence konyv: any commonly accepted defi nition of its borders, has been subject to incessant political and ideological change from the time of the Napoleonic wars up until the accession of most of its countries to the European Union. A succession of historic events -the liberal revolutions of the mid-nineteenth century, the formation of a unifi ed Germany, the creation of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the retreat of the Ottoman Empire from the Balkans, the two World Wars, and the gradual spread and subsequent rapid collapse of the communist regimes konyv: 10.32.

fostered, among other things, a konyv: search for stability, and yet has constantly led people and politics in ever newer directions. Th is resulted in radical shift s of orientation approximately every thirty or forty years, therefore within a single generation or so. Th e phenomenon of what it means to be Central European has recently formed the focus of konyv: 10.32. investigation. Th e idea of competition, before entering the world of architectural interpretations, was the key notion of Mary Douglas and Aaron B.

Wildavsky's volume, Risk and Culturewhich greatly infl uenced the anthropological approach to the phenomenon of Central and Eastern Europe. Among academic fi elds, in addition to contemporary art theory and practice, anthropology and konyv: 10.32. play a fundamental role in defi ning Central and Eastern Europe as a particular place, whose multiplicity and heterogeneity not only infl uence the region's "gazes", but also the way they are hierarchized and necessarily envisaged in their given cultural-political situation Demski, Baraniecka, Sz.

Th e notions of competition, empire, the change of social norms, the role of media, and national narratives are especially symptomatic in the case of universal exhibitions, which, while addressed to an international audience, were organized in most cases in national capitals, and tended to amass increasing numbers of exhibitors.

Regional exhibitions exercised great infl uence on industrial and cultural urban centers. A classifi cation of international shows of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries reveals konyv: fundamental aspects of such events. Universality and internationality oft en coincide, with the fi rst referring to the universal character of the exhibited goods, objects and inventions, and the second referring mainly to the international range of exhibitors.

In 10.32. course of konyv: 10.32. nineteenth century, an exhibition is more likely to have been international, displaying universal or specialized exhibits to an international audience, rather than universal, demanding a huge fi nancial contribution from national revenues, placed under the auspices of the highest national rulers and organized mainly in capital cities Royle Th e evolution of the universal exhibition can be traced back to the industrial exhibitions that appeared at the end of the eighteenth century, displaying a diversity of goods produced across the nation, such as the Ephemerity and political geography IX Exposition publique des produits de l'industrie in KusamitsuCarpenter Th e universal exhibition, as a new phenomenon of the secularized and industrialized society of the nineteenth century, was an interpretation of its current state of development, and was thus in need of a new, unique form of architecture Wesemael Th is had to befi t the temporary character of the universal exhibitions: it was tailored to meet the required holding capacity and mirrored its continuous development.

However, this continuously renewing architecture did not manifest itself solely in the new, revolutionary materials of the nineteenth century: apart from halls of iron, glass and faience, the use of wood-and-plaster "light-structured pavilions" became widespread within a short time of its fi rst appearance.

In response to new economic challenges, organizers and participants representing the national sections of universal exhibitions faced a new, unfamiliar konyv: how to gain economic, commercial and cultural advantages for their country by associating it with an original and distinctive image. Th e economic force of country-branding was oft en mixed in with historical traditions, especially through peasants' room interiors, which were considered prime national symbols by many 10.32.

countries Stoklund In their article, Viazova and Korndorf question the conventional belief that, to paraphrase the authors, the history of glass architecture began with purely utilitarian palace greenhouses and orangeries, which grew, due exclusively to nineteenth-century technological advances, into the gigantic pavilions of world fairs and glass-vaulted arcades Auerbach Apart from the gallery-like constructions of universal exhibitions, small-scale pavilions, as representatives of some or other political agenda, were also created using ephemeral architecture.

Pavilion architecture underwent a fundamental evolution in the late nineteenth 10.32. Traditional types of ephemeral architectural -triumphal arches, konyv: fountains, castrum doloris -were gradually taken over by innovations intended to serve equally the representational needs of an increasingly secularizing bourgeois society, the preservation of national memory, and mass entertainment.

Th e most important innovation came with the exhibition pavilions themselves, which fi rst appeared in greater numbers at the Paris Exposition; pavilions built with the "10.32." purpose of national representation appeared during subsequent decades. Th ese buildings, initially modestly sized and constructed mostly for commercial purposes, evolved into two new types aft er the s: open-air museums, mirroring authentic peasant konyv: and catering for the newfound interest in ethnography, complemented with novel entertainment districts in the form of pavilion-complexes; and buildings that provided exhibition space for artisans or cottage industries, but without gastronomical functions.

As Bernasconi argues in this volume, the tent-room represents a sedentism of mobile and ephemeral architecture. Th is was a form of internal decoration that borrowed from the shape of a tent and its diff erent functions, both political and cultural. To paraphrase the konyv: 10.32. sedentism was an important step in the life of ephemeral architecture, providing deep insight into its function as a symbolic legitimation of the monarchy at the beginning of the nineteenth century, and illustrating its role in the cultural consumption process.

In this context the tent-room was the transformation of a technical device an item of ephemeral architecture into a decorative cipher. Th e mobile, easily transformable character of a tent, previously used by the military, as a place where members of the upper konyv: 10.32. could retire and relax, was transformed into a symbolic venue for national political agendas aft konyv: 10.32.

the proliferation of pavilions in exhibition parks following the Paris Exposition Wesemael Indeed, both the early appearance and the diff usion of such light architectural structures can be related to the Bourbon dynasty. Th e spread of this interior motif can be traced in the history of political symbology and in the cultural consumption of travel at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Th e Paris Exposition also saw the appearance of a new medium with konyv: architectonic styles. Small-scale pavilions showcasing gastronomy or konyv: entrepreneurs appeared here for the fi rst time in signifi cant numbers. Before long, pavilions were appropriated by nations as the medium par excellence for self-representation at the universal exhibitions at the turn of the century. Th e ephemeral palaces built on the Rue des Nations for the Paris Exposition are evidence of this.

Universality remained the leitmotif for major fairs, where the latest and greatest was put on display -items from everyday material culture, important technical inventions and outstanding industrial achievements, bringing international exhibitors together. As civilization "progressed", the need arose for specialized exhibitions focusing on a particular type of trade, product or invention, maintaining an international character with the attendance of non-national exhibitors.

Th e fi rst International Art Exhibition in Venice infor example, which became today's Venice Biennale, was in fact an international exhibition specializing in the fi ne arts, while Die Internationale Hygiene-Ausstellung in Dresden in attracted international exhibitors of a new kind, who specialized in modern casual life.

At the same time, however, they adopted independent agendas, related to the specifi c political circumstances in which they were organized. Th e case of Hungary, as the Eastern half of the Dual Monarchy, and therefore covering a large part of what authors defi ne today as Central Europe, provides an especially pertinent example of such an autonomous transformation of the exhibition medium, which was used to proclaim sovereignty, modernity and national identity. For many artists, architects and konyv: 10.32.

amateurs, peasant traditions preserved national roots and fragmented memories from the pre-conquest period. As a collection of remnants of the mythical past, peasant culture was interpreted as the basis of reinvented national myths and legends, and, more importantly from a political point of view, drove attempts to revive a national vernacular in art and architecture. HobsbawnAnderson Th e Hungarian Millennium was an event of great "konyv: 10.32." enthusiasm.

Intellectuals, politicians, priests, noblemen and sometimes simple citizens promoted their ideas on how konyv: commemorate this event. Even though organizational issues konyv: a konyv: 10.32. role, the date of the conquest could not be determined, not even approximately.

Th e use of art and architecture for national representation became a major 10.32. of offi cial cultural politics aft er the Millennium exhibition inand during the subsequent two decades, in every part of the Dual Monarchy. Hungarian exhibitors fi rst took part in universal exhibitions as early as in London, although the history of Hungarian pavilions, like that of all the other konyv: 10.32.

nations, did not begin until in Paris. As part of a new and nationalistic paradigm of national representation, national pavilions refl ected the konyv: 10.32. of cultural sovereignty for both Hungary and Croatia. Th e political concept 10.32. being Hungarian or Croatian and sovereign did not exclude accepting the results of the political compromise of Cultural self-image diff ered from political will and reality.

Th e importance of Hungary's presence in exhibition halls and pavilion grounds abroad, physically separated from Austria, was visually emphasized aft er the Millennium Exhibition. In the course of the nineteenth century, small trade fairs and industrial exhibitions around Europe increasingly opened up to international exhibitors and audiences.

In general, universal exhibitions were addressed to international audiences. Aft er the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, a number of attempts were made in Hungary to organize an international exhibition. Th e Millennium Exhibition was a proud affi rmation both of Hungary's present and its past. Th e contemporary aspect of the Millennium Exhibition was contained in the representation of the latest economic and cultural achievements of Hungary in the Main Contemporary Group, which included industrial, ethnographic and art sections.

Th e retrospective part of the Main Historical Group, housed in a romantic pavilion composed of replicas of twenty-two diff erent historic buildings, focused on historical development and culture going back to the coronation of King St.

Stephen of Hungary in AD Albert Participation in the exhibition refl ected the political situation of the time, for Croatia was part of Hungary, and was thus obliged to be involved in the exhibition to demonstrate the political connection between the two countries. Following konyv: 10.32. research of Cornaglia, if themes such as industry or agriculture were really "national" and therefore konyv: 10.32. pavilions with visible wooden or wooden-like structures, the less "serious" "konyv:" of eating and drinking could be represented by livelier and more lavish types of architecture, whose roots were intended to be seen in internationally acknowledged architectural approaches.

In the case of the French Restaurant, there is a clear neo-Baroque reference, a world away from the Wagnerschule, standing out among an architectural landscape fi lled mostly with konyv: 10.32. bearing visible wooden or wooden-like structures, referring to the national theme of woods, Konyv: and political geography XIII forests konyv: 10.32. the wood industry. Other pavilions with neo-Baroque forms, designed by the Braun brothers and by J.

Hubert, housed Croatian wines and Hungarian sparkling wine companies. Th e commemoration of Hungary's Millennium was not, however, limited to domestic displays in Budapest, but extended to exhibitions abroad. Hungary officially joined the exposition universelle in Paris as a participant 10.32. invested more fi nancial, economic and intellectual eff ort into its national presentation than ever before.

Th e Hungarian pavilion on 10.32. Rue des Nations was the fi rst to be decorated using vernacular motifs on an ephemeral construction, opening the way for the use of such motifs and premodern tendencies in Hungarian pavilions during later decades. Th e paper investigates the changed and unchanged aspects of the two national representations and the change of message from the domestic to the international audience.

Th e universal exhibition of off ered a radically diff erent concept of nation-building strategies, with rising interest in the making of modern Slavic art and architecture and the emergence of neo-Byzantine architecture, both of which took on increasing signifi cance in the interwar period. Hungarian representations did not change fundamentally from tounlike their target from a domestic to an international audience: 10.32.

Millennium Exhibition was a 10.32. of Hungary's historicity as well as modernity Unowsky, Four years later, beside the economic and cultural sovereignty exhibited in the galleries of the Hungarian historical pavilion in the Rue des Nations, Hungary's and Croatia's offi cially appropriated historical narrative was emphasized through a mixture of historic and vernacular architectural elements.

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