|FORMÁTUM:||PDF EPUB MOBI TXT|
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Ephemeral architecture in Central and Eastern Europe in the 19th and 21st centuries. Dragan Damjanovic. Gianenrico Bernasconi. Paolo Cornaglia. Cosmin Minea.
Veronika Drohobytska. Silvija Grosa. Caoimhe Gallagher. Marta Filipova. Lara Slivnik. Roula Matar-Perret. Cristiana Volpi. Editions Harmattan. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package This paper. A short summary of this paper.
READ PAPER. Exhibitions in the nineteenth century were oft en konyv: 10.32. to modernity and their architecture refl ected diverse nation building strategies Greenhalgh In 10.32. and Eastern Europe national movements fl ourished in imperial contexts: in the territories of the Habsburg Empire later Austria-HungaryPrussia later Germany and Russia. Central and Eastern Europe is a fl uid geopolitical concept of the twentieth century referring to a politically unstable territory, whose borders shift ed almost continuously during the timespan under investigation.
Temporary constructions were erected for national and international exhibitions as a means for conveying ideas to an immediate 10.32., while pavilions were regarded as hubs of architectural and artistic trends, political visions, and cultural and social issues. Th e complex political, cultural, social, economic and urban context of ephemerity is related, in this volume, to the nation-building strategies of the region. Our focus is on the interrelationships between constantly changing political ideologies and spectacular ephemeral architecture and displays.
Th e wide range of approaches in this book includes the exterior and interior design of an exhibition pavilion, along with its location within the exhibition park and among neighboring edifi konyv: 10.32., and its function as a 10.32. of regional, national or corporate representation. Th e main objective of konyv: volume is to investigate the relationship between nationbuilding strategies, political propaganda and temporary architecture in Central and Eastern Europe.
Th is region, notwithstanding the absence konyv: any commonly accepted defi nition of its borders, has been subject to incessant political and ideological change from the time of the Napoleonic wars up until the accession of most of its countries to the European Union. A succession of historic events -the liberal revolutions of the mid-nineteenth century, the formation of a unifi ed Germany, the creation of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the retreat of the Ottoman Empire from the Balkans, the two World Wars, and the gradual spread and subsequent rapid collapse of the communist regimes konyv: 10.32.
fostered, among other things, a konyv: search for stability, and yet has constantly led people and politics in ever newer directions. Th is resulted in radical shift s of orientation approximately every thirty or forty years, therefore within a single generation or so. Th e phenomenon of what it means to be Central European has recently formed the focus of konyv: 10.32. investigation. Th e idea of competition, before entering the world of architectural interpretations, was the key notion of Mary Douglas and Aaron B.
Wildavsky's volume, Risk and Culturewhich greatly infl uenced the anthropological approach to the phenomenon of Central and Eastern Europe. Among academic fi elds, in addition to contemporary art theory and practice, anthropology and konyv: 10.32. play a fundamental role in defi ning Central and Eastern Europe as a particular place, whose multiplicity and heterogeneity not only infl uence the region's "gazes", but also the way they are hierarchized and necessarily envisaged in their given cultural-political situation Demski, Baraniecka, Sz.
Th e notions of competition, empire, the change of social norms, the role of media, and national narratives are especially symptomatic in the case of universal exhibitions, which, while addressed to an international audience, were organized in most cases in national capitals, and tended to amass increasing numbers of exhibitors.
Regional exhibitions exercised great infl uence on industrial and cultural urban centers. A classifi cation of international shows of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries reveals konyv: fundamental aspects of such events. Universality and internationality oft en coincide, with the fi rst referring to the universal character of the exhibited goods, objects and inventions, and the second referring mainly to the international range of exhibitors.
In 10.32. course of konyv: 10.32. nineteenth century, an exhibition is more likely to have been international, displaying universal or specialized exhibits to an international audience, rather than universal, demanding a huge fi nancial contribution from national revenues, placed under the auspices of the highest national rulers and organized mainly in capital cities Royle Th e evolution of the universal exhibition can be traced back to the industrial exhibitions that appeared at the end of the eighteenth century, displaying a diversity of goods produced across the nation, such as the Ephemerity and political geography IX Exposition publique des produits de l'industrie in KusamitsuCarpenter Th e universal exhibition, as a new phenomenon of the secularized and industrialized society of the nineteenth century, was an interpretation of its current state of development, and was thus in need of a new, unique form of architecture Wesemael Th is had to befi t the temporary character of the universal exhibitions: it was tailored to meet the required holding capacity and mirrored its continuous development.
However, this continuously renewing architecture did not manifest itself solely in the new, revolutionary materials of the nineteenth century: apart from halls of iron, glass and faience, the use of wood-and-plaster "light-structured pavilions" became widespread within a short time of its fi rst appearance.
In response to new economic challenges, organizers and participants representing the national sections of universal exhibitions faced a new, unfamiliar konyv: how to gain economic, commercial and cultural advantages for their country by associating it with an original and distinctive image. Th e economic force of country-branding was oft en mixed in with historical traditions, especially through peasants' room interiors, which were considered prime national symbols by many 10.32.
countries Stoklund In their article, Viazova and Korndorf question the conventional belief that, to paraphrase the authors, the history of glass architecture began with purely utilitarian palace greenhouses and orangeries, which grew, due exclusively to nineteenth-century technological advances, into the gigantic pavilions of world fairs and glass-vaulted arcades Auerbach Apart from the gallery-like constructions of universal exhibitions, small-scale pavilions, as representatives of some or other political agenda, were also created using ephemeral architecture.
Pavilion architecture underwent a fundamental evolution in the late nineteenth 10.32. Traditional types of ephemeral architectural -triumphal arches, konyv: fountains, castrum doloris -were gradually taken over by innovations intended to serve equally the representational needs of an increasingly secularizing bourgeois society, the preservation of national memory, and mass entertainment.
Th e most important innovation came with the exhibition pavilions themselves, which fi rst appeared in greater numbers at the Paris Exposition; pavilions built with the "10.32." purpose of national representation appeared during subsequent decades. Th ese buildings, initially modestly sized and constructed mostly for commercial purposes, evolved into two new types aft er the s: open-air museums, mirroring authentic peasant konyv: and catering for the newfound interest in ethnography, complemented with novel entertainment districts in the form of pavilion-complexes; and buildings that provided exhibition space for artisans or cottage industries, but without gastronomical functions.
As Bernasconi argues in this volume, the tent-room represents a sedentism of mobile and ephemeral architecture. Th is was a form of internal decoration that borrowed from the shape of a tent and its diff erent functions, both political and cultural. To paraphrase the konyv: 10.32. sedentism was an important step in the life of ephemeral architecture, providing deep insight into its function as a symbolic legitimation of the monarchy at the beginning of the nineteenth century, and illustrating its role in the cultural consumption process.
In this context the tent-room was the transformation of a technical device an item of ephemeral architecture into a decorative cipher. Th e mobile, easily transformable character of a tent, previously used by the military, as a place where members of the upper konyv: 10.32. could retire and relax, was transformed into a symbolic venue for national political agendas aft konyv: 10.32.
the proliferation of pavilions in exhibition parks following the Paris Exposition Wesemael Indeed, both the early appearance and the diff usion of such light architectural structures can be related to the Bourbon dynasty. Th e spread of this interior motif can be traced in the history of political symbology and in the cultural consumption of travel at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Th e Paris Exposition also saw the appearance of a new medium with konyv: architectonic styles. Small-scale pavilions showcasing gastronomy or konyv: entrepreneurs appeared here for the fi rst time in signifi cant numbers. Before long, pavilions were appropriated by nations as the medium par excellence for self-representation at the universal exhibitions at the turn of the century. Th e ephemeral palaces built on the Rue des Nations for the Paris Exposition are evidence of this.
Universality remained the leitmotif for major fairs, where the latest and greatest was put on display -items from everyday material culture, important technical inventions and outstanding industrial achievements, bringing international exhibitors together. As civilization "progressed", the need arose for specialized exhibitions focusing on a particular type of trade, product or invention, maintaining an international character with the attendance of non-national exhibitors.
Th e fi rst International Art Exhibition in Venice infor example, which became today's Venice Biennale, was in fact an international exhibition specializing in the fi ne arts, while Die Internationale Hygiene-Ausstellung in Dresden in attracted international exhibitors of a new kind, who specialized in modern casual life.
At the same time, however, they adopted independent agendas, related to the specifi c political circumstances in which they were organized. Th e case of Hungary, as the Eastern half of the Dual Monarchy, and therefore covering a large part of what authors defi ne today as Central Europe, provides an especially pertinent example of such an autonomous transformation of the exhibition medium, which was used to proclaim sovereignty, modernity and national identity. For many artists, architects and konyv: 10.32.
amateurs, peasant traditions preserved national roots and fragmented memories from the pre-conquest period. As a collection of remnants of the mythical past, peasant culture was interpreted as the basis of reinvented national myths and legends, and, more importantly from a political point of view, drove attempts to revive a national vernacular in art and architecture. HobsbawnAnderson Th e Hungarian Millennium was an event of great "konyv: 10.32." enthusiasm.
Intellectuals, politicians, priests, noblemen and sometimes simple citizens promoted their ideas on how konyv: commemorate this event. Even though organizational issues konyv: a konyv: 10.32. role, the date of the conquest could not be determined, not even approximately.
Th e use of art and architecture for national representation became a major 10.32. of offi cial cultural politics aft er the Millennium exhibition inand during the subsequent two decades, in every part of the Dual Monarchy. Hungarian exhibitors fi rst took part in universal exhibitions as early as in London, although the history of Hungarian pavilions, like that of all the other konyv: 10.32.
nations, did not begin until in Paris. As part of a new and nationalistic paradigm of national representation, national pavilions refl ected the konyv: 10.32. of cultural sovereignty for both Hungary and Croatia. Th e political concept 10.32. being Hungarian or Croatian and sovereign did not exclude accepting the results of the political compromise of Cultural self-image diff ered from political will and reality.
Th e importance of Hungary's presence in exhibition halls and pavilion grounds abroad, physically separated from Austria, was visually emphasized aft er the Millennium Exhibition. In the course of the nineteenth century, small trade fairs and industrial exhibitions around Europe increasingly opened up to international exhibitors and audiences.
In general, universal exhibitions were addressed to international audiences. Aft er the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, a number of attempts were made in Hungary to organize an international exhibition. Th e Millennium Exhibition was a proud affi rmation both of Hungary's present and its past. Th e contemporary aspect of the Millennium Exhibition was contained in the representation of the latest economic and cultural achievements of Hungary in the Main Contemporary Group, which included industrial, ethnographic and art sections.
Th e retrospective part of the Main Historical Group, housed in a romantic pavilion composed of replicas of twenty-two diff erent historic buildings, focused on historical development and culture going back to the coronation of King St.
Stephen of Hungary in AD Albert Participation in the exhibition refl ected the political situation of the time, for Croatia was part of Hungary, and was thus obliged to be involved in the exhibition to demonstrate the political connection between the two countries. Following konyv: 10.32. research of Cornaglia, if themes such as industry or agriculture were really "national" and therefore konyv: 10.32. pavilions with visible wooden or wooden-like structures, the less "serious" "konyv:" of eating and drinking could be represented by livelier and more lavish types of architecture, whose roots were intended to be seen in internationally acknowledged architectural approaches.
In the case of the French Restaurant, there is a clear neo-Baroque reference, a world away from the Wagnerschule, standing out among an architectural landscape fi lled mostly with konyv: 10.32. bearing visible wooden or wooden-like structures, referring to the national theme of woods, Konyv: and political geography XIII forests konyv: 10.32. the wood industry. Other pavilions with neo-Baroque forms, designed by the Braun brothers and by J.
Hubert, housed Croatian wines and Hungarian sparkling wine companies. Th e commemoration of Hungary's Millennium was not, however, limited to domestic displays in Budapest, but extended to exhibitions abroad. Hungary officially joined the exposition universelle in Paris as a participant 10.32. invested more fi nancial, economic and intellectual eff ort into its national presentation than ever before.
Th e Hungarian pavilion on 10.32. Rue des Nations was the fi rst to be decorated using vernacular motifs on an ephemeral construction, opening the way for the use of such motifs and premodern tendencies in Hungarian pavilions during later decades. Th e paper investigates the changed and unchanged aspects of the two national representations and the change of message from the domestic to the international audience.
Th e universal exhibition of off ered a radically diff erent concept of nation-building strategies, with rising interest in the making of modern Slavic art and architecture and the emergence of neo-Byzantine architecture, both of which took on increasing signifi cance in the interwar period. Hungarian representations did not change fundamentally from tounlike their target from a domestic to an international audience: 10.32.
Millennium Exhibition was a 10.32. of Hungary's historicity as well as modernity Unowsky, Four years later, beside the economic and cultural sovereignty exhibited in the galleries of the Hungarian historical pavilion in the Rue des Nations, Hungary's and Croatia's offi cially appropriated historical narrative was emphasized through a mixture of historic and vernacular architectural elements.
Phaser Windows Print Konyv: 10.32. Installer Package. Contains konyv: 10.32. Print drivers, Easy Printer Manager, and Easy Wireless Setup utility. Linux Driver for Phaser supports: Ubuntu This package contains the WiFi Setup Utility that allows users to configure the printer to connect to a wireless network or change the wireless settings after installation.
Utilize this file for upgrading firmware over the network 10.32. CentreWare Internet Services CWIS. The release notes containing installation instructions is linked to this site. Product support Phaser Platform All platforms Linux Mac OS X Language Arabic Brazilian Portuguese Bulgarian Catalan Chinese Konyv: Chinese Traditional Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Global English N.
America Finnish French French Canadian German Greek Hebrew Hungarian Indonesian Italian Japanese Kazakh Korean Latvian Lithuanian Norwegian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Slovakian Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Ukrainian. Apply Filters. Drivers Drivers. More details I agree to the Terms and Conditions Download.
Linux driver for the Phaser Phaser Mac Driver. Print Driver v1. Phaser Mac OS Software Driver and Utilities. The Package Contains the Print driver and Easy Printer Manager. Linux Driver for Phaser WiFi Setting Utility for Mac OS Phaser General Release 10.32. v3. See also: ReadMe Installation Guide. Need more support? Get answers in the Community Support Forum Join the conversation.
Join the conversation. More Resources. Buy Supplies. Windows and Mac OS Compatible. Account Management. Register My Product. Xerox Remote Services. IF YOU DO NOT ACCEPT THESE LICENSE 10.32. YOU Konyv: 10.32. NOT DOWNLOAD, INSTALL OR USE THE SOFTWARE AND YOU MUST DELETE ANY SOFTWARE FILES Konyv: 10.32. BY YOU OR A THIRD PARTY ON YOUR BEHALF FROM ANY AND ALL COMPUTER MEMORY INTO WHICH SUCH SOFTWARE HAS BEEN LOADED OR STORED.
When used in this agreement the term "Xerox" shall mean Xerox Corporation, its operating companies, subsidiaries and affiliates. If you are installing the Software on behalf of the end user you must agree that you are acting as an agent of the end user customer before proceeding. As agent for the end user you hereby agree that you have either; 1 read and agree to the terms of this Agreement as authorized by the end user, or 2 you have made the end user aware of the license terms and the end user has explicitly accepted them.
LICENSE GRANT. Xerox grants to you a non-exclusive, non-transferable license to use the Software on the Xerox-brand equipment on which it was delivered or, if delivered separately, on a single item of equipment. You have no other rights to the Software and may not: 1 distribute, copy, modify, create derivatives of, decompile, or reverse engineer Software; 2 activate Software delivered in an inactivated state; or 3 allow others to engage in same.
You may make archival or back-up copies of the Software, provided each copy contains konyv: of the copyright and other proprietary notices contained on the original Software and such copies and is used only for back-up purposes. THIRD PARTY SOFTWARE. The Software may include code developed by one or more third parties. Some third party materials included in Software may be subject to other terms and conditions found in a "ReadMe" file accessible with the Software as a download, on media on which the Software may be delivered, or in equipment documentation.
If the third party terms and conditions include licenses that provide for the availability of source code such as the GNU General Public Licensethe "ReadMe" file, the media on which the Software may be delivered, or the equipment documentation contain the source code or provides instructions where a copy of such source code can be konyv: 10.32. Xerox will pay any settlement agreed to by Xerox or any final judgment konyv:, any claim that Software infringes a third party's valid United States patent or copyright, provided that you promptly notify Xerox in writing of any alleged infringement, allow Xerox to direct the defense, and fully cooperate with Xerox.
Xerox is not responsible for any non-Xerox litigation expenses or settlements unless Xerox agrees to them in writing. To avoid infringement, even if not alleged, Xerox may, at its option, and at no charge to you, either obtain a license, provide a replacement for the Software 10.32. remove or request that you remove the Software.
Xerox will not be liable for any infringement-related liability outside the scope of this section, including, without limitation, infringement based upon konyv: Software being modified to your specifications or due to the Software being used in combination with equipment, software or supplies not provided by Xerox.
Notwithstanding any damages that you might incur, the entire liability of Xerox and its licensors under this Agreement 10.32. your exclusive remedy will be limited to the greater of the amount actually paid by you for the Software or U. Xerox may terminate your license for the Software i immediately if you no longer use or possess the equipment with which the Software was provided or are a lessor of the equipment with which the Software was provided and your first lessee no longer uses or possesses it, ii upon the termination of any agreement under which you have rented or leased the equipment with which the Software was provided, or iii immediately in the event of a breach by you.
If terminated as provided above, you shall return to Xerox all copies of the Software, and remove same from all equipment into which such Software may have been loaded by you. The Software is provided with Restricted Rights. You agree to meet all requirements necessary to ensure that the Federal Government will honor such rights.
Disclosure, use or reproduction of the Software and accompanying documentation are subject to restrictions set forth in the Commercial Computer-Restricted Rights clause at Federal Acquisition Regulation If any provision of this Agreement is held invalid by any law, rule, order or regulation of any government, or by the final determination of any state or federal court, such invalidity will not affect the enforceability of any other provisions not held to be invalid.
In the event any provision hereof is declared by competent authority to be invalid, illegal 10.32. unenforceable under any applicable law, to the extent permissible under applicable law, any such invalid, illegal or unenforceable provision shall be deemed amended lawfully to conform to the intent of the Parties. NO WAIVER. Any delay or omission by either party to exercise any right or remedy under this Agreement will not be construed to be a waiver of any such right or remedy or any other right or remedy.
All of the rights of either party under this Agreement will be cumulative and may be exercised separately or concurrently. GOVERNING LAW. This Agreement shall be construed in accordance konyv: the laws of the State of New York, without regard to its choice of konyv: 10.32.
provisions, and disputes shall be adjudicated or otherwise decided in the forums therefor located in the State of New York. The United Nation Convention on Contracts for International Sales of Goods shall not apply to 10.32. Agreement. Local law may require that certain laws of your country of residence apply to some sections of this Agreement, including but not limited to, requiring this Agreement to be governed by the laws of your country of residence. You will not export or re-export the Software without appropriate United States or foreign government licenses or for any purpose prohibited by any applicable export control laws.
ENTIRE AGREEMENT. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between the parties in connection with the subject matter hereof, and supersedes all prior agreements, understandings, negotiations and discussions, whether oral or written, between the parties. No amendment to or modification of this Agreement 10.32. be binding unless it is in writing and signed by a duly authorized representative of each of the parties.
Equipment may be supported and serviced using data that is automatically collected by Xerox from equipment via electronic transmission from the equipment to a secure off-site location. Konyv: 10.32. the Software konyv: downloaded by you to a laptop or desktop computer, the Software may additionally collect product registration information, including customer supplied name and customer supplied site name. All such data will be transmitted in a secure manner specified by Xerox.
The automatic data transmission capability will not allow Xerox to read, view or download the content of any of your documents residing on or passing through equipment konyv: 10.32. any or your information management systems, nor will it collect user name konyv: 10.32. user job specific data. Your information may be transmitted, stored and processed in the United States or any other country konyv: 10.32. which Xerox or its designated servicers or subcontractors maintain facilities.
For information on disabling this feature, visit xerox. Software used to evaluate or maintain Xerox equipment "Diagnostic Software" may be embedded in, reside on, or may be loaded onto Xerox equipment. The Diagnostic Software and method of entry or access to konyv: constitute valuable trade secrets of Konyv: 10.32.
You agree that a your acquisition of the equipment does not grant you konyv: license or right to use Diagnostic Software in any manner, and b that unless separately licensed by Xerox to do so, you will not access, use, reproduce, distribute, or disclose Diagnostic Software for any purpose or allow third parties to do so. You agree at all times to allow Xerox to access, monitor, and otherwise take steps to prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of Diagnostic Software and to remove konyv: 10.32.
disable Diagnostic Software. Xerox grants to you a non-exclusive, non-transferable license to use the Software on the Xerox-brand 10.32. "Equipment" on which konyv: was delivered or, if delivered separately, on a single item of equipment. Software may include or incorporate software provided by Microsoft Corporation "Microsoft Software". In addition to all other terms and conditions of this Agreement, the following applies to Your installation and use of Microsoft Software.
You may not: i sell, lease, loan, sublicense, or use the Microsoft Software for commercial software hosting services; konyv: 10.32. publish any benchmark results for the Microsoft Software; iii work around any technical limitations in the Microsoft Software; or iv separate components of the Microsoft Software and install them on different pieces of equipment.
The Software may include code developed by one or more third parties "Third Party Software". Some Third Party Software may be subject to other terms and conditions that may be found in an open source software disclosure package provided with the Software or available for download with the product documentation. Notwithstanding the terms konyv: conditions of this Agreement, the Third Party Software is licensed to you subject to the terms and conditions of the software license agreement identified 10.32.
the 10.32. source software disclosure. If the third party terms and conditions include licenses that provide for the availability of source code such as the Konyv: 10.32. General Public Licensethe open source software disclosure or the media on which the Software may be delivered will 10.32. the source code or provide instructions where a copy of such source code can be obtained.
REMOTE SERVICES. Certain models of Equipment are supported and serviced using data that is automatically collected by Xerox or konyv: 10.32. to or from Xerox by the Equipment connected to Customer's network "Remote Data" via electronic transmission to a secure off-site location "Remote Data Access". Remote Data Access also enables Xerox to transmit to Customer Releases for Software and to remotely diagnose and modify Equipment to repair and correct malfunctions.
Remote Konyv: 10.32. will be transmitted to and from Customer in a secure manner specified by Xerox. Konyv: Data Access will not allow Xerox to read, view or download the content of any Customer documents or other konyv: 10.32. residing on or passing through the Equipment or Customer's information management systems.
Customer grants the konyv: to Xerox, without charge, to conduct Remote Data Access for the purposes described above. Customer will enable Remote Data Access via a method prescribed by Xerox, and Customer will provide reasonable assistance to allow Xerox to provide Remote Data Access. Unless Xerox deems Equipment incapable of Remote Data Access, Customer will ensure that Remote Data Access is maintained at all times maintenance or support services are being provided.